NOT 1, 2, 5, 7, 3, 4, 6, 9, 8!

Activities that employ the stable-order-principle are most useful when they are simultaneously employed with the one-to-one principle. Children need to understand that one word is said as one object is touched or action is completed. To be able to count also means knowing that the list or sequence of words used must be in a repeatable order.

Source: Origin One

Number language is complicated as it involves rote learning of words that do not have a recognisable pattern.

Initially children may just be chanting words memorised through rhymes and stories with it not

having much meaning. Increasingly, the order of words takes meaning and children will begin to

realise that the order of counting words is always the same and must always be said in this order:

the stable order principle (Montague-Smith and Price, 2012).

## Difficulties

### Decade Numbers

- For children who speak English, learning number words greater than ten is difficult (Fuson & Kwon,

1991; Miller & Stigler, 1987). This is because the number words for values up to the hundreds are often irregular and do not assist children by NOT relating to the base-10 number system.

- Many of these confusions are avoided in East Asian languages, because of a direct one-to-one relation between number words greater than ten and the underlying base-10 system (Fuson & Kwon, 1991; I. Miura, Kim, Chang, & Okamoto, 1988; I. Miura, Okamoto, Kim, Steere, & Fayol, 1993). The Chinese word for twelve is translated as “ten two.” Using ten two to represent 12 has two advantages. First, children do not need to memorise additional word tags, such as eleven and twelve. Second, the fact that twelve is composed of a single tens value and two units values is obvious.

### Teen Numbers

- Usually I talk to children about the numbers after ten, explaining that it would be easier if we said ‘ten and one’ rather than eleven or ‘two tens’ rather than twenty. Introducing the numbers in this way seems to develop some understanding of the structure of numbers.

- Some researchers have suggested that we introduce the numbers eleven, twelve, and the ‘teen’ numbers after they learn to count to 100. I understand why they suggest this but have never been able to reconcile as to how we would teach this way when we have groups of objects above ten!!!!

## Activities

**Count Around the Circle ** The teacher/adult sets what the children will count to. Children can say either 1, 2 or 3 numbers, for example, child 1 says, “1, 2”, the next child “3” and the next child, maybe “4, 5, 6”. It is up to the child. When the target number is reached that child sits down and the next child starts from 1 again.

**Counting books, singing simple number songs, repetitive counting and consistent modelling** help students develop this concept of number sense and correct errors that may occur.

Counting Dinosaurs from FUSE Education

**Curious George – flowers **online game

**Curious George – bubbles **online game

Until next time,

Carole